Perintah-perintah Dasar Console Linux (Terminal)

Seperti halnya bila kita mengetikkan perintah di DOS, command line atau baris perintah di Linux juga diketikkan di prompt dan diakhiri dengan menekan tombol Enter pada keyboard untuk mengeksekusi perintah tersebut.

Baris perintah merupakan cara yang lebih efisien untuk melakukan sesuatu pekerjaan. Oleh karena itu pemakai Linux tetap mengandalkan cara ini untuk bekerja. Sebaiknya pemula juga harus mengetahui dan sedikitnya pernah menggunanakan perintah baris ini karena suatu saat pengetahuan akan perintah-perintah ini bisa sangat diperlukan.
Berikut akan dijelaskan beberapa perintah dasar sistem operasi Linux :

File Commands :
  • ls = directory listing
  • ls -al = formatted listing with hidden files
  • cd dir = change directory to dir
  • cd = change to home
  • pwd = show current directory
  • mkdir dir = create a directory dir
  • rm file = delete file
  • rm -f dir = delete directory dir
  • rm -f file = force remove file
  • rm -rf dir = force remove directory dir *
  • cp file1 file2 = copy file1 to file 2
  • cp -r dir1 dir2 = copy dir1 to dir2
  • mv file1 file2 = rename or move file1 to file2
  • ln -s file link = create symbolic link to file
  • touch file = create or update file
  • cat > file = places standard input into file
  • more file = output the contents of file
  • head file = output the first 10 lines of file
  • tail file = output the last 10 lines of file
  • tail -f file = output the contents of file as it
  • grows = starting with the last 10 lines

Searching :
  • grep pattern files = search for pattern in files
  • grep -r pattern dir = search recursively for pattern in dir
  • command | grep pattern = search for pattern in the output of command
  • locate file = find all instances of file
Process Management :
  • ps = display your currently active processes
  • top = display all running processes
  • kill pid = kill process id pid
  • killall proc = kill all processes named proc (use with extreme caution)
  • bg = lists stopped or background jobs; resume a stopped job in the background
  • fg = brings the most recent job to foreground
  • fg n = brings job n to the foreground
Shortcuts :
  • Ctrl + C = halts the current command
  • Ctrl + Z = stop the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in background
  • Ctrl + D = log out of current session, similar to exit
  • Ctrl + W = erases one word in the current line
  • Ctrl + U = erases the whole line
  • Ctrl + R = type to bring up a recent command
  • !! = repeats the last command
  • exit = log ut of current session
System Info :
  • date = show the current date and time
  • cal = show this month’s calender
  • uptime = show current uptime
  • w = display who is online
  • whoami = who you are logged in as
  • finger user = display information about user
  • uname -a = show kernel information
  • cat /proc/cpuinfo = cpu information
  • cat /proc/meminfo = memory information
  • man command = show the manual for command
  • df = show disk usage
  • du = show directory space usage
  • free = show memory and swap usage
  • whereis app = show possible locations of app
  • which app = show which app will be run by default
Compression :
  • tar cf file.tar files = create a tar named file.tar containing files
  • tar xf file.tar = extract the file from file.tar
  • tar czf file.tar.gz files = create a tar with Gzip compression
  • tar xzf file.tar.gz = extract a tar using Gzip
  • tar cjf file.tar.bz2 = create a tar with Bzip2 compression
  • tar xjf file.tar.bz2 = extract a tar using Bzip2
  • gzip file = compresses file and renames it to file.gz
  • gzip -d file.tar.gz decompresses file.gz back to file
Network :
  • ping host = ping host and output result
  • whois domain = get whois information for domain
  • dig domain = get DNS information for domain
  • dig -x host = reverse lookup host
  • wget file = download file
  • wget -c file = continue a stopped download
Installation :
  • Install from source
    ./configure
    make
    make install
  • dpkg -i pkg.deb = install a package (Debian)
  • rpm -Uvh pkg.rpm = install a package (RPM)
  • sudo apt-get install package = install a package if connect to the internet
  • sudo apt-get update = update package source lists
  • sudo apt-get upgrade = install an update packages
File Permissions :
  • chmod +x name_file = create a script can be executed
  • chmod octal file = change the permissions of file to octal, which can be found separately for user, group and world by adding :
    4 = read (r)
    2 = write(w)
    1 = execute (x)
Examples :
chmod 777 = read, write, execute for all
Semoga bermanfaat..
Jaya Open Source.!!

Tentang eldeliah

PP. Jamaah Al-Deliah Al-Islamiah
Pos ini dipublikasikan di Linux. Tandai permalink.

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